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Complete the sentences below.
Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDSfrom the passage for each answer.
28. 29. 30.
Which paragraph contains the following information?
Write the correct letter,A–F,in boxes 31–35 on your answer sheet.
31. Specific proteins transport nutrients from the external environment against the concentration gradient.
32. The barrier function of cell membranes is supported by a bilayer of phospholipids.
33. The level of membrane fluidity is regulated by cholesterol molecules.
34. The importance of cell membranes are often underestimated.
35. Proteins make the membrane semi-permeable.
Complete the summary below.
Choose ONLY ONE WORD from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 36–40
Cell membranes protect cells and organize their activities. The first main function of cell membrane – barrier function – is carried by phospholipids. These molecules don’t solve in water and, thus, are ideal for cells that always exist in 36. environment.
In addition to lipids, membranes are loaded with 37. that make the membrane 38. , which means that some molecules can diffuse across the lipid bilayer but others cannot. One of the most important types of membrane proteins are 39. proteins and receptor proteins.
The last type of membrane elements are cholesterol molecules, which are embedded in place of 40. molecules and help to regulate the stiffness of membranes.